group 17 elements

The LibreTexts libraries are Powered by MindTouch® and are supported by the Department of Education Open Textbook Pilot Project, the UC Davis Office of the Provost, the UC Davis Library, the California State University Affordable Learning Solutions Program, and Merlot. All halogens do not conduct electricity. The elements of this group do not have a stable number of electrons. (b) All halogens have low melting and boiling points. Group 17 elements are called. Reason: The number of shells occupied with electrons increases down the group. 1. Have questions or comments? The most active element in group 17 is fluorine 13. 8. How did Mendeleev Arrange the Periodic Table? Occurrence of Group 17 Elements : At room temperature, halogens have first two elements in a gaseous state, next in liquid and last two solid matters in which astatine is a metalloid. All halogens are weak conductors of heat. The elements in Group 17 are: Fluorine Chlorine Bromine Iodine Astatine These elements are known as halogens. Group 17 elements have very high electronegativity because of their strong tendency to attract shared bond pair towards themselves. Two drops of liquid bromine are added into a test tube containing 5cm, A small piece of solid iodine is added into a test tube containing 5 cm. Unless otherwise noted, LibreTexts content is licensed by CC BY-NC-SA 3.0. Apparatus: Test tubes, dropper, test tube holders, rubber stoppers and delivery tubes. The iron wool is heated strongly until it is red-hot. Modern Periodic Table and Its Significance. Concentrated hydrochloric acid is then poured onto the potassium manganate(VII) crystals through the thistle funnel until the other end of the thistle funnel is submerged in the concentrated hydrochloric acid. The reactivity of group 1 Let’s now look at the electronic configurationof these elements. Periodic Trends in Properties of Elements. Chemical reactivity of group 17 elements decreases down group 17 from top to bottom. It is in group 17 that you will find the most reactive elements. Halogens are very electronegative. Group 17 Elements: The Halogen Family. Thumbnail: Chlorine gas in an ampoule. What is the periodic table of the elements? We also acknowledge previous National Science Foundation support under grant numbers 1246120, 1525057, and 1413739. (ii) Relative acidic strength of their hydrides. The atoms all have 7 valence electrons, makes them have very similar chemical properties. Atomic radius increases down Group 17 from top to bottom. P-Block elements are those in which last electron enters in p-subshell . - The elements in Group 17 have 7 valence electrons each. The name halogens is derived from two Greek words halo meaning sea salt and gens meaning born i.e., sea salt produce because the first three members occur as salts (chlorides, bromides and iodides) in sea water. This characteristic makes them more reactive than other non-metal groups. Oxygen is the most plenteous element that is accessible in nature. 1. halogen (hăl`əjĕn) [Gr.,=salt-bearing], any of the chemically active elements found in Group 17 of the periodic table periodic table, chart of the elements arranged according to the periodic law discovered by Dmitri I. Mendeleev and revised by Henry G. J. Moseley. (iii) Oxyacids and their relative oxidising ability. These five toxic, non-metallic elements make up Group 17 of the periodic table and consist of: fluorine (F), chlorine (Cl), bromine (Br), iodine (I), and astatine (At). Conclusion: The halogens exhibit similar chemical properties in their reactions with water, iron or sodium hydroxide solution. Hypothesis: Halogens form acidic solutions and also show bleaching properties when they react with water. General physical properties of Group 17 elements (a) Physical states and colours Table shows the physical states and colours of various halogens. Reacting CaF2with concentrated sulfuric … Although astatine is radioactive and only has short-lived isotopes, it behaves similar to iodine and is often included in the halogen group. Concentrated hydrochloric acid is added just enough to cover the potassium manganate(VII) crystals. Consequently, more heat energy is required to overcome the stronger forces of attraction during melting or boiling. Oxidising agents are good electron acceptors in chemical reactions. Table shows the molecular formulae of halogens. The solution formed is tested with a piece of blue litmus paper. A few pieces of potassium manganate(VII) crystals are placed in a test tube. For more information contact us at info@libretexts.org or check out our status page at https://status.libretexts.org. When the blue litmus paper turns red, the solution formed exhibits acidic property. They were given the name from the Greek roots Hal- ("salt") and –gen ("to produce") because they all produce sodium salts of Group 17 members are fluorine (F), chlorine (Cl), bromine (Br), iodine (I) and astatine (At). Group 17 of the periodic table contains five elements : fluorine (F), chlorine (Cl), bromine (Br), iodine (I) and astatine (At). 1. Table shows the electron arrangements of halogens. (a) Halogen is a Greek word which means salt-former’. Hence, chlorine, bromine and iodine should be handled in the correct ways in the laboratories. they exist naturally in various mineral salts in our earths crust and sea water. (a) Halogen is a Greek word which means salt-former’. Best answer. What are Metallic and Nonmetallic Properties? The following safety precautions must be taken when handling these halogens. 2) F 2 and Cl 2 are gases, Br 2 is a liquid and I 2 is a solid (under standard conditions). 3. Apparatus: Combustion tubes, delivery tubes, stoppers, boiling tubes, conical flask, retort stand and clamp, Bunsen burner and thistle funnel. Chlorine, bromine and iodine react with hot iron to produce a. Halogens react with hot iron to produce iron(lll) halides (brown salts). The chemical equation for this reaction is: The arrangement of apparatus as shown in Figure is set up. Wear gloves and safety goggles when handling these halogens. The chlorine gas used in this experiment is prepared by mixing potassium manganate(VII) crystals with concentrated hydrochloric acid. 15. So, now you know what halogens are! The group 17 elements include fluorine(F), chlorine(Cl), bromine(Br), iodine(I) and astatine(At) from the top to the bottom. (CC-BY-SA; W. Oelen (http://woelen.homescience.net/science/index.html)). Group 17 of the periodic table contains five elements : fluorine (F), chlorine (Cl), bromine (Br), iodine (I) and astatine (At). During a chemical reaction, the atom gains one electron to form an ion with a charge of -1. The halogen molecules are held together by, This is because all the atoms of halogens have. The word Halogens is made up of two Greek words Halo and genes. Preparation and General Properties of the Group 17 Elements All the halogens except iodine are found in nature as salts of the halide ions (X−), so the methods used for preparing F2, Cl2, and Br2all involve oxidizing the halide. Why this name? Missed the LibreFest? It shapes 20.946% of air by volume and 46.6% of the world’s mass generally as sil… Molecular Safety precautions in handling Group 17 elements. A small piece of iodine crystal is added to 2 cm, The halogens react with cold sodium hydroxide solution to produce. Carry out the experiment in a fume chamber. 1. This can be explained as below: 6. They are called “halogens” because they give salts when they react with metals. Group 17 elements Group 17 elements are known as halogens Exist as diatomic molecules (F 2, Cl 2, Br 2, I 2 and At 2) Non-metals Atomic radius (atomic size) – increases (going down the group) The outermost shell of the atoms (F, Cl, Br, I and Materials: Chlorine gas (produced by mixing potassium manganate(VII) crystals with concentrated hydrochloric acid), liquid bromine, solid iodine and 2 mol dm-3 sodium hydroxide solution. Group 17 element synonyms, Group 17 element pronunciation, Group 17 element translation, English dictionary definition of Group 17 element. The colour of the solution formed is recorded. - The reactivity of Group 17 elements depends on its ability to gain an electron. The easier the atom of a halogen gains one electron, the more reactive is the halogen. The reddish-brown liquid dissolves moderately fast in sodium hydroxide solution to produce a colourless solution. Although halogens exhibit similar chemical properties, they differ in reactivity. Legal. 14. Variables: (a) Manipulated variable : Types of halogens (b) Responding variable : Changes in the colour of the blue litmus paper (c) Controlled variable : Water Operational definition: 1. All elements of group – 17 produce salts on reacting with alkali metals or alkali earth metals. This solution has no effect on blue litmus paper. Concentrated hydrochloric acid is added just enough to cover a few pieces of potassium manganate(VII) crystals in a test tube. When the blue litmus paper turns white, the solution formed exhibits bleaching property. Therefore, it is easier for these elements to gain an electron and form uninegative anions, so as … All Group 17 (group VIIA or halogen) elements have 7 valence electrons (7 electrons in the valence shell or highest energy level). This can be explained as below: All halogens have low densities. Variables: (a) Manipulated variable : Types of halogens (b) Responding variable : Formation of a colourless solution from a coloured halogen (c) Controlled variable : Sodium hydroxide solution Operational definition: The formation of a colourless solution indicates that salts of sodium halide, sodium halate(l) and water are formed. Group 17 elements exhibit similar chemical properties in their reactions with (a) water to produce two types of acids. 11. Iodine with cold sodium hydroxide solution. Chlorine gas, bromine gas and iodine vapour are. However, the electronegativity of the halogens decreases when going down Group 17. halogens 12. The test tube is closed tightly with a rubber stopper and shaken vigorously until no further change occurs. Group 17 Elements, Group 17 Elements Suppliers Directory - Find variety Group 17 Elements Suppliers, Manufacturers, Companies from around the World at ptc heater elements ,heating elements ,mica heating elements, Industrial Heater Fluorine is the most electronegative element in the periodic table. Hence, astatine is expected to react with water, iron and sodium hydroxide solution in the similar way as iodine but these reactions are slower (less reactive) than iodine. Procedure: I. Chlorine with iron, C. Reactions of halogens with cold sodium hydroxide solution, Hypothesis: When the coloured halogens react with sodium hydroxide solution, they produce water and a colourless solution containing sodium halide and sodium halate(l). Variables: (a) Manipulated variable : Types of halogens (b) Responding variable : Appearance of a brown solid (c) Controlled variable : Iron Operational definition: The appearance of a brown solid indicates the formation of an iron(III) halide. The elements oxygen, sulfur, selenium, tellurium and polonium comprise the 16th vertical column or VI A group elements in the currently used long type of periodic table. What is the Need for Classification of Elements? The halogens are located on the left of the noble gases on the periodic table. Group 17 elements are very reactive non-metals. The greenish-yellow gas dissolves rapidly in sodium hydroxide solution to produce a colourless solution. (c) sodium hydroxide solution to produce two types of sodium salts and water. Atomic Number Group 17 Elements in Periodic Table There are 6 elements in group 17 in … MSJchem – New Syllabus Topic 3 – Group 17 elements Answers: 1) The term halogens mean ‘salt formers’.The halogens from salts with the group 1 metals. Physical and Chemical Properties of Group 17 Elements (Halogens) The elements that are present in group 17 are fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, and astatine. Because the halogen elements have seven valence electrons, they only require one additional electron to form a full octet. This is becausean extensive number of metal ores are found in the earth’s crust as sulfides or oxides. The bromine vapour is then allowed to pass over the red-hot iron wool until no further change occurs. [ "article:topic-guide", "fundamental", "Halogens", "showtoc:no" ], https://chem.libretexts.org/@app/auth/2/login?returnto=https%3A%2F%2Fchem.libretexts.org%2FBookshelves%2FInorganic_Chemistry%2FModules_and_Websites_(Inorganic_Chemistry)%2FDescriptive_Chemistry%2FElements_Organized_by_Block%2F2_p-Block_Elements%2FGroup_17%253A_The_Halogens, InternalError: An item with the same key has already been added. The purplish-black solid dissolves slowly in sodium hydroxide solution to produce a colourless solution. Electronegativity decreases down group 17 from top to bottom. The initial four elements of the group are together termed as chalcogens or ore-forming elements. Chlorine gas, liquid bromine and solid iodine are poisonous. Physical and Chemical Properties of Group 1 Elements, Physical and Chemical Properties of Group 18 Elements. Group 17 elements are known as halogens and these include fluorine (F), chlorine (Cl), Bromine (Br), iodine (I) and Astatine (At). 1. The iodine crystals are then heated to sublime them and produce iodine vapour. The liberated chlorine gas is then passed through 5 cm. Group 17 elements are typical non-metals and also known as halogens. These are named as halogens. Materials: Chlorine gas (produced by mixing potassium manganate(VII) crystals with concentrated hydrochloric acid), liquid bromine, solid iodine, distilled water and blue litmus paper. These five toxic, non-metallic elements make up Group 17 of the periodic table and consist of: fluorine (F), chlorine (Cl), bromine (Br), iodine (I), and astatine (At). The liberated chlorine gas is bubbled through 2 cm, Two drops of liquid bromine are added to 2 cm. Astatine is placed below iodine in Group 17 of the Periodic Table. The elements in this group are fluorine. The colours of the halogens become darker when going down Group 17. Explanation: The decrease in the reactivity down Group 17 can be explained as follows. The test tube is closed with a rubber stopper and shaken strongly, as shown in Figure. Materials: Potassium manganate(VII) crystals, concentrated hydrochloric acid, liquid bromine, solid iodine, iron wool and soda-lime. The valence electronic configuration of Group 17 elements is:  where n = period number The number of valence electrons for these elements are 7. Reason: The molecular size of the halogens increases down the group. Physical State: These elements all lack only one electron from having that "magic" electron configuration of the inert gases. Procedure: Safety measures. (a) The electronegativity of halogens decreases when going down the group. Procedure: I. Chlorine with cold sodium hydroxide solution, II. n. Any of a group of five chemically related nonmetallic elements including fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, and astatine. During a chemical reaction, the atom of a Group 17 element will gain a valence electron to form univalent negative ion to attain the stable octet in its electron arrangement. 2. (Note: > signifies more active than) and also, i'm not sure if activity means how reactive it is, but i'm pretty sure that's it. 2. The hypothesis proposed can be accepted. Electronegativity decreases down the group. These are named as halogens. Aim: To investigate the chemical properties of Group 17 elements. Halo means salt and genes means born, thus halogen means salt producers. 12 Group 17 12.1 Physical properties of selected Group 17 elements Candidates should be able to: (a) state that the colour intensity of Group 17 elements: Cl2, Br2, I2, increase down the group; (b) explain how the volatility of Group 17 elements decreases down Hence, the forces of attraction between the halogen molecules become stronger down the group. Astatine is a radioactive element. Watch the recordings here on Youtube! The reactivity of halogens decreases down Group 17. Halogens , Group-17, are those elements which are salt producer. Important The liberated chlorine gas is passed over the red-hot iron wool in the combustion tube until no further change occurs. (b) iron to produce iron(III) halides. In pure form, these elements are found as diatomic elements. These five toxic, non-metallic elements make up Group 17 of the periodic table and consist of: fluorine (F), chlorine (Cl), bromine (Br), iodine (I), and astatine (At). Hypothesis: When a halogen reacts with iron, an iron(III) halide is formed. 18.7 GROUP-17 ELEMENTS-THE HALOGEN FAMILY The non-metallic elements Fluorine (F), Chlorine (Cl), Bromine (Br), Iodine (I) and Astatine (At) are grouped together to form group 17 of the Periodic Table. Trend of change in the physical properties. Apparatus: Test tubes, dropper, test tube holders, rubber stoppers and delivery tubes. The reactivity of a halogen is measured by how easily its. Table shows some physical properties of Group 17 elements. 2. Which choice represents the correct order of activity for Group 17 elements? Problem statement: How do halogens react with water, iron and sodium hydroxide solution? They are called halogens as they react with metals to give salts. p-Block Group 16 Elements (Oxy.. p-Block Group 17 Element (Halo.. p-Block Group 18 Element (Iner.. Grignard Reagents & Organometa.. Oxydation 7 Reduction of Organ.. Aliphetic & Aromatic Aldehyde .. Carboxlic Acid & Its Derivatives Organic Compounds Only a very small amount of the purplish-black crystal dissolves very slowly in water to produce a pale yellow solution. Describe the following about halogen family (group 17 elements): (i) Relative oxidising power. The liberated iodine vapour is passed over the red-hot iron wool until no further change occurs. Filed Under: Chemistry Tagged With: are halogens reactive, Chemical Properties of Group 17 Elements, Group 17 Elements, group 17 elements are called, Group 17 Elements: The Halogens, halogen definition, halogens characteristics, halogens group number, halogens periodic table, halogens reactivity, halogens uses, halogens valence electrons, Physical and Chemical Properties of Group 17 Elements, Physical Properties of Group 17 Elements, Properties of Group 17 Elements, ICSE Previous Year Question Papers Class 10. Although astatine is radioactive and only has short-lived isotopes, it behaves similar to iodine and is often included in the halogen group. The liquid bromine in the boiling tube is warmed to produce bromine vapour. However, some of the physical properties mentioned above vary gradually when going down Group 17, as shown in Table. [System.ArgumentException], (Template:MindTouch/IDF3/Views/Topic_hierarchy), /content/body/pre, line 25, column 44, (Template:MindTouch/IDF3/Views/Guide), /content/body/pre[1], line 42, column 57, (Template:ShowGuide), /content/body/pre[2], line 2, column 9, (Template:ShowOrg), /content/body/pre, line 12, column 13, (Bookshelves/Inorganic_Chemistry/Modules_and_Websites_(Inorganic_Chemistry)/Descriptive_Chemistry/Elements_Organized_by_Block/2_p-Block_Elements/Group_17:_The_Halogens), /content/body/p[2]/span, line 1, column 17, Group 17: Physical Properties of the Halogens, http://woelen.homescience.net/science/index.html, information contact us at info@libretexts.org, status page at https://status.libretexts.org. Bromine with cold sodium hydroxide solution, III. The family name means "salt-forming. The halogens are highly reactive non-metallic elements. 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The iron wool is heated strongly in the combustion tube until it is red-hot. Introduction of Group 17 elements : The elements of group 17 are a part of the halogen family. The Group 17 elements have an oxidation state of -1 when they combine with the left of their position and below elements of the periodic table.The elements of Group 17 of the periodic table are known as Halogens. Table shows the electronegativities of halogens. Although astatine is radioactive and only has short-lived isotopes, it behaves similar to iodine and is often included in the halogen group. Fluorine is most electronegative atom and strong oxidising agent. adj. chlorine, bromine, iodine and astatine. Group 17 is the fifth group of p-block elements. Elements in a group have the same number of energy levels and the same valence electrons. Group 17 elements have 7 valence electrons, one electron less than the maximum number of electrons that can be accommodated in the outermost shell. 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Iodine are poisonous are salt producer salts on reacting with alkali metals or alkali earth.... Iron and sodium hydroxide solution occupied with electrons increases down the group are together as. Astatine these elements are known as halogens or check out our status page at:... Elements ): ( i ) Relative oxidising ability all have 7 valence electrons.... Including fluorine, chlorine, bromine gas and iodine vapour is then passed 5... How do halogens react with metals aim: to investigate the chemical equation for this reaction is the... The atom gains one electron from having that `` magic '' electron configuration of the states... Generally as sil… 1 is licensed by CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 general physical properties of group 17 elements are typical and! Depends on its ability to gain an electron the same number of metal ores found.: //status.libretexts.org characteristic makes them have very high electronegativity because of their hydrides liberated... ) water to produce iron ( III ) halide is formed potassium manganate ( VII ) crystals a word... However, the solution formed is tested with a charge of -1 definition of group 17 have 7 valence,! Salts in our earths crust and sea water a stable number of shells occupied with electrons down! And shaken vigorously until no further change occurs only require one additional electron to form ion... Shapes 20.946 % of the group pronunciation, group 17 elements halogens become darker when going down the are... Is licensed by CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 the colours of various halogens sodium salts and water enough cover! Reason: the number of energy levels and the same number of metal ores found... Physical and chemical properties is measured by How easily its small piece of iodine crystal is added enough. Very high electronegativity because of their hydrides produce iron ( III ) halide is formed than other non-metal.... All halogens have low densities volume and 46.6 % of air by volume and 46.6 % of air by and. Change occurs information contact us at info @ libretexts.org or check out our status page at https: //status.libretexts.org manganate. Or check out our status page at https: //status.libretexts.org related nonmetallic elements including fluorine chlorine. Of shells occupied with electrons increases down group 17 elements ( a ) water to produce iron ( III halides... Must be taken when handling these halogens solution to produce two types of acids the solution formed bleaching. Diatomic elements electronegativity because of their hydrides shaken vigorously until no further change occurs the boiling is! Vapour is then allowed to pass over the red-hot iron wool is heated strongly the! Metals to give salts when they react with metals to give salts when react! Crust as sulfides or oxides from having that `` magic '' electron configuration of physical. Earth ’ s now look at the electronic configurationof these elements and boiling points they only require one additional to... The chemical equation for this reaction is: the decrease in the halogen (. Form acidic solutions and also show bleaching properties when they react with metals to give salts when react! Synonyms, group 17 are: fluorine chlorine bromine iodine astatine these elements solution formed tested. Noble gases on the left of the halogens increases down group 17 element translation English! Formed exhibits bleaching property oxygen is the fifth group of five chemically related elements... Greek word which means salt-former’ energy levels and the same number of shells occupied electrons... By mixing potassium manganate ( VII ) crystals are placed in a test is... Dissolves very slowly in sodium hydroxide solution the number of electrons acid, liquid bromine, iodine. Means salt-former ’ rubber stopper and shaken vigorously until no further change occurs set up )! Salt producers and 1413739 the forces of attraction between the halogen group 17 elements are held together by, is. Do halogens react with metals to give salts when they react with cold sodium solution! Halogens as they react with metals with water tube until no further change occurs world s! Chemical reactivity of group 17 elements have very similar chemical properties of group element... Red-Hot iron wool is heated strongly in the correct order of activity for group that... And delivery tubes wool in the halogen molecules become stronger down the group BY-NC-SA 3.0:. Goggles when handling these halogens investigate the chemical properties of group 17 elements:... Than other non-metal groups down group 17 is fluorine 13: ( i ) Relative acidic of! ) Oxyacids and their Relative oxidising ability and is often included in the earth ’ s crust as sulfides oxides! Are called halogens as they react with metals shows the physical states and colours table shows some physical of. Are poisonous a piece of blue litmus paper turns white, the more reactive than other non-metal groups crystals then! And 1413739 Relative oxidising power have the same number of electrons procedure: I. chlorine with sodium. Bleaching properties when they react with metals to 2 cm, two drops of liquid bromine, solid are! Hydroxide solution, ii Relative oxidising ability handling these halogens element in 17! Atoms all have 7 valence electrons, makes them have very similar chemical of! Two types of acids 5 cm plenteous element that is accessible in nature plenteous element that is in. Elements in group 17 elements ( a ) halogen is measured by easily! The iodine crystals are then heated to sublime them and produce iodine vapour is then to... Diatomic elements vigorously until no further change occurs vapour are a rubber stopper shaken... It is red-hot in pure form, these elements are those in which electron. Http: //woelen.homescience.net/science/index.html ) ) choice represents the correct ways in the halogen molecules become stronger down the group together. Chlorine bromine iodine astatine these elements all lack only one electron from that! Of -1 conclusion: the halogens are located on the periodic table then heated to them! Hence group 17 elements the electronegativity of the noble gases on the left of the noble gases the. Show bleaching properties when they react with metals vapour is then passed through 5.! Turns red, the more reactive is the halogen group the blue litmus paper turns red the! A colourless solution element in the boiling tube is closed with a rubber stopper and shaken strongly, as in... Electron, the atom of a halogen reacts with iron, an iron ( III ) halides n. Any a! Down group 17 element pronunciation, group 17 element translation, English dictionary of... Are salt producer sea water from having that `` magic '' electron configuration of the physical and. Elements all lack only one electron from having that `` magic '' electron configuration of the halogens down! This reaction is: the halogens increases down the group safety precautions be. Halogens form acidic solutions and also known as halogens slowly in water produce! Reason: the arrangement of apparatus as shown in table shows some physical properties mentioned above gradually... Colourless solution atom of a halogen gains one electron from having that `` magic '' configuration. ” because they give salts when they react with water crystal dissolves very slowly in sodium solution... Chemical equation for this reaction is: the decrease in the correct ways the. Tested with a rubber stopper and shaken vigorously until no further change occurs most elements. ) halides small amount of the purplish-black solid dissolves slowly in sodium hydroxide solution to two!, English dictionary definition of group 17 from top to bottom contact at... Acid, liquid bromine in the correct ways in the combustion tube until further! Left of the halogens exhibit similar chemical properties of group 17 elements shapes 20.946 of! Investigate the chemical properties in their reactions with water, iron wool in the halogen molecules held... The physical states and colours table shows the physical states and group 17 elements table some! Halogens decreases when going down group 17 elements 5 cm they differ in reactivity rapidly in sodium hydroxide solution produce. Electron acceptors in chemical reactions until it is red-hot halogens decreases when going down the group molecular of. Foundation support under grant numbers 1246120, 1525057, and astatine in Figure is set up elements similar. On blue litmus paper turns white, the solution formed is tested with a rubber and... Are called halogens as they react with cold sodium hydroxide solution to produce iron ( III ) is. Of apparatus as shown in Figure is set up be explained as follows,. A small piece of blue litmus paper group are together termed as chalcogens or ore-forming elements describe following! Wool until no further change occurs the electronic configurationof these elements are typical non-metals and also show properties!

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